Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

Key antibiotic resistance genes in the Acinetobacter sp. VT-511 genome:

Number of genes Function
43 Multidrug ABC transporter
30 MFS – major facilitator superfamily transporter
3 MATE transporters
1 DMT drug metabolite transporter
1 RND multidrug efflux transporter
1 Tellurite resistance protein TehB
1 Copper resistance protein CopB
1 Copper resistance protein CopD
1 Arsenic resistance protein ArsB
1 Azaleucine resistance protein AzlC
1 Heavy metal resistance protein CzcA
1 EmrB/QacA subfamily drug resistance transporter
1 Tellurium resistance protein
1 Fosmidomycin resistance protein
1 Multidrug resistance transporter, Bcr/CflA family
1 Resistance macrolides
1 Resistance to fluoroquinolones
1 Organic hydroperoxide resistance protein
1 Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein SugE

Genomic analyses revealed that Acinetobacter sp. VT-511 harbors numerous antibiotic resistance genes that catalyze uptake, efflux, diffusion, solute exchange, and other mechanisms of bacterial defense against antibiotics. The organism also harbors genes encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. Finally, the spores produced by VT-511 contribute significantly to the spread of antimicrobial resistance.