Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

Key antibiotic resistance genes in the Streptococcus sp.  VT-162  genome:

Number of genes Function
142 ABC transporter permeases
14 multidrug ABC transporter
6 MATE transporters
3 MFS – major facilitator superfamily transporter
2 Glyoxalase
2 Beta-lactamase
1 DMT drug metabolite transporter
1 Vancomycin  resistance protein vanZ
1 Dihydrofolate reductase

Genomic analyses revealed that Streptococcus sp. strain VT 162 contains numerous antibiotic resistance genes that contribute significantly to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Specifically, the organism harbors genes that catalyze uptake, efflux, diffusion, solute exchange, and other mechanisms of bacterial defense against antibiotics, including vancomycin and trimetoprim.

In particular, the glyoxalase of Streptococcus spp. has been shown to exhibit oncogenic activity and to play a role in bacterial-mediated oncogenesis.