Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

Key antibiotic resistance genes in the Paenibacillus sp. VT 400 genome

Number of genes Function
96 MFS – major facilitator superfamily transporter
18 Multidrug ABC transporter
8 MATE transporters
4 ABC transporter permeases
2 SMR small multidrug resistance
1 DMT drug metabolite transporter
1 Fosmidomycin resistance protein
1 Tunicamycin resistance protein
1 Bleomycin resistance protein
1 Vancomycin resistance protein
1 Fosfomycin resistance protein FosB
1 Tellurium resistance protein TerA
1 Tellurium resistance protein TerF
1 Cephalosporin hydroxylase
1 Beta-lactamases
1 Metal-dependent hydrolase, beta-lactamase superfamily II
1 Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase
1 Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase
1 Tetracycline resistance protein TetA
1 Dihydrofolate reductase
1 D-alanine-D-alanine ligase

Genomic analyses revealed that Paenibacillus sp. VT 400 harbors numerous antibiotic resistance genes that catalyze uptake, efflux, diffusion, solute exchange, and other mechanisms of bacterial defense against antibiotics. The organism also contains genes encoding resistance to tellurium, tunicamycin, and bleomycin, which are used for treating hematological malignancies.